In Islamic civilization, humankind is considered a small universe that cosmos fits into it. Therefore, the scientists raised into Islamic civilization, saw the relationship between the universe and the humankind as a whole and took a multi-directional approach tackling it. Ibn al-Haytham wrote philosophical epistles while working on optical theories. In addition to his philosophical research, Avicenna has published the founding books of medical science, developed ideas on music theory, and produced works in the field of logic and mathematics. While working on mathematics, numbers and cryptology, Al Kindi also penned books in physics and chemistry, and carried out philosophical works that would make him to be accepted as the first philosopher of Islam. Each of these polymath personalities, who believed that knowledge belonged to humankind rather than to an institutional structure, and that the ways of interpreting and transmitting information made humankind valuable, were regarded as institutes on their own.
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